Canadian Federalism and International Trade: Ontario and Quebec’s Role in the Negotiation of USMCA/CUSMA/T-MEC

Stéphane Paquin & Laurence Marquis, Canada and International Affairs. Palgrave Macmillan.

Publié le 16 décembre 2021

In order to avoid becoming mere implementers of trade agreements negotiated by the federal government, Canadian provinces, notably Quebec and Ontario, have become increasingly involved in trade negotiations. Although the federal government has full powers over treaties and sole responsibility for international trade, when we look at the actual process of trade negotiations, it appears as a “de facto shared practice.” The “new generation” of trade agreements increasingly involves areas of provincial jurisdiction, whether public procurement, labor, state monopolies and corporations, investment, the environment, or sustainable development. The evolution of trade agreements has made provincial involvement more critical. This chapter looks at the role Ontario and Quebec played in the NAFTA renegotiation, leading to the United States–Mexico–Canada Agreement, and finds that it falls somewhere between the role they played in the Comprehensive Economic and Trade Agreement and Trans-Pacific Partnership negotiations.

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Stéphane Paquin

Professeur, École nationale d'administration publique
Directeur exécutif du GÉRIQ